20th of August 2018
Universa ruen
Rating 43.75%
69 rank in the rating
20th of August 2018
What is Universa?

Universa is a fast blockchain with smart contracts. The project is aimed at transferring all paper documentation into digital information on the basis of blockchain technology and decentralized system of smart contracts targeting the real economic sector.

With the help of Universa, any supplier or market player will be able to offer their services at Universa and perform payment transactions in any tokens or currencies. Multipurpose contracts of Universa can be used for programming both private corporate applications and public ones.

The difference of Universa is storage and performance of smart contracts on the client’s side, and not in Universa network. The network stores only their current state.

It should be noted that Universa technically is a cryptosystem not on the blockchain, but on the DAG. The word "blockchain" is used here (as well as by the authors of the project in their documentation) rather as an established term for the cryptosystem.

Architecture and Logic
Mechanisms and principles of emission

One-time tokens emission, the total amount is 10 billion UTN tokens.

Tokens were distributed in 2 stages:

  • pre-ICO (September 2017)
  • ICO (October 28 - December 2, 2017)

During the TGE (Token Generation Event), the Ethereum ERC20 token was generated, playing the role of a placeholder, and was distributed among the participants. The platform tokens will be created and distributed on the main blockchain when Universa platform is launched. TGE participants and pre-sales, which did not implement their ERC20 (UTN-P) placeholder tokens, will receive their remuneration directly in UTN.

According to token sales, $28'800'060 was collected.

Token distribution:

  • General public —  66%.
  • Organization —  20%.
  • Team —  10%.
  • Rewards / Consultants / Partners —  4%.

Use of funds received during the ICO:

  • Universa Protocol (development) —  35%.
  • Marketing / Project development —  20%.
  • Funds —  20%.
  • Reserve —  10%.
  • Operations —  8%.
  • Lawyers —  5%.
  • Security —  2%.

Performing smart contracts requires payment for transactions in UTN in order to reward participating nodes for the processing power they provide to the network, and to support the constant development of Universa platform. The nodes will keep 80% of the transaction fee, and 20% will be sent to Universa corporation. Each day, 1% of the fee held by Universa will be destroyed forever, or "burned", which will lead to withdrawal of this amount from circulation and create a lifetime deflation effect.

At this stage of the work of network, U token is also used. UTN is a digitized coupon, with which Universa services can be purchased. And U is the gas of Ethereum network analogue. A fee of 1 U is charged for one basic transaction (for example, transfer of tokens). It is planned to fix the rate of 1 U at the level of 0.01 USD. UTN is a freely tradable token with a floating price, and U can not be transferred to other users and it can be bought for UTN. In White Paper, there is no mention of this token.

Consensus building mechanisms

Universa platform is based on Universa network —  a number of Universa Core clients working on nodes that make up Universa blockchain and enable the work of Universa Secure Signed Document Service (code-named "Notarial cloud").

The nodes in Universa system are trusted and belong to the platform partners. Each node is licensed and authorized by the corporation. Thereafter, the system works under the assumption that all nodes can be trusted.

The network is built around contracts and their executions —  "transactions" — and each time an action is to be performed, all the nodes are given the current state of contract and the source of performing operation. The state and source are checked by hash sum for the identity of the current state of the side chain of the contract ("K-Chain"), operation is applied, and then the new state is hashed and matched.

The creators of Universa divide consensus building mechanism into two levels: local and network consensus. Consensus is understood as confirmation of the status of smart contract, for example —  its creation, change of state, destruction.

A two-level consensus procedure confirms that:

  • The parties involved in the contract have checked and approved it.
  • The network has verified the agreement of the parties, compliance with rules of the contract and confirmed the contract.

Local consensus.

To reach local consensus, the parties involved sign the state of the smart contract using a digital signature. A smart contract can be really complicated, requiring signatures of a large number of parties to confirm the changes. When all parties signed a smart contract - local consensus has been reached.

Network consensus.

After reaching local consensus, the contract is sent to all nodes of Universa network for approval. Each node receives a copy and performs a close check of logic, limitations, tolerances, signatures and the status of contract. After this, each node publishes its decision: approval or rejection, and passes it to the network.

In that case when 11% of the nodes refused to approve the contract (negative consensus), the voting stops and all nodes record in network the fact of rejection of the change in the status of contract.

Otherwise, if 90% have approved a change in the status of contract, all nodes record to network the fact of reaching consensus.

Each node has its own copy of network (ledger) and stamps the time when the new contract was submitted for approval.

Protection against logical and technical attacks

Double spend

In terms of Universa network, double spend attack is an attempt to approve 2+ different states of one contract. For example, a contract for transfering property (coins, etc.) to several parties simultaneously. To do this, the attacker creates several revisions (revision, in Universa terminology, is a new contract or a new contract state) and sends it synchronously to different nodes for confirmation.

Suppose that an attacker wants to change the state of contract C into two other A and B and two nodes get it simultaneously. Since contracts are valid, both nodes block the previous state of C to be removed and replaced by state A or B and send their solution to other nodes in the network. Each network node receiving A or B state will block the C state to be removed and replaced by state A or B, respectively. Thus, some nodes will vote for A, some for B, but no one will vote for both.

There will be a kind of race for gaining votes for one of the two states. Depending on network operation parameters (speed, random lags, etc.) there can be 3 results:

  • A is processed faster than B and collects 90% of the vote. Therefore, it is approved.
  • B is processed faster than A and collects 90% of the vote. Therefore, it is approved.
  • The most likely case. Most likely A and B will be processed with approximately equal speed, so each state will get about half the votes. Thereafter, both of them will reach a negative consensus, and the state of C will remain unchanged.

More complex cases lead to a similar result: either as a result of consensus, a new state is established (one of many), or all new states are rejected and the system remains unchanged.

DDOS attacks

The client interface of the node is connected to Nginx (HTTP server) or the similar one, whose configuration is set on:

  • Limitation of the maximum request length.
  • Limitation of the maximum request time.
  • Verification of correctness of request.

Configuration of more complex restrictions is possible using Nginx functionality. The client software receives only filtered Nginx requests, executes them and sends them back.

DDOS-attacks can be performed in two ways: statically (static request is just a data request that does not require execution of operations on it) and dynamically (dynamic request is, for example, a request of the result of calculation). Static requests are fully cached and processed by Nginx.

All dynamic client requests require a payment certificate. The procedure for verifying the certificate is fairly simple, so an incorrect certificate can not be used to attack the system. If the certificate is in order, limitation of number of hits is applied to it. Exceeding of this limit leads first to a temporary, and then to a permanent revocation of the certificate.

Architectural advantages and risks

Advantages of Universa:

  • A simple protocol for creating custom applications and blockchains.
  • Low transaction costs.
  • High transaction speed.
  • No overhead costs.
  • A platform with zero disclosure of information by storing contracts on the client’s side (in the absence of wallets).

Smart contract structure

A smart contract globally consists of three parts:

  • Definition.

The constant part of the contract, that can not be changed in revisions (state versions). It contains the issuer, timestamp, tolerances (some tolerances can be transferred to the "state" part of smart contract) and any data that the creator wants to leave unchanged.

  • State.

Modified section, parameters of which can be changed in revisions. Contains the version number, creator, timestamp, link to the original / previous revision, modifiable roles and any modifiable data, and, sometimes, the customizable tolerances.

  • Attachments.

Any file referred to by a signed link in the other two parts of smart contract (definition or status).

Network structure

Universa network does not store contracts and their state chains, the network contains only records about their actual state (no more than 140 bytes).

The execution and storage of contracts is carried out on the client’s side. Networks do not need to store a complete history of all transactions, since they can be stored in the side chains by each participant responsible for their execution. Transaction records, contract sources and digital signatures can later be verified for authenticity in the relevant Notary Cloud service, which is responsible for processing assets and their digital signatures, but is separate and different from blockchain.

Each individual contract retains its own chain of states, so the contract can perform actions asynchronously, without blocking or affecting other contracts, and the cumulative state changes collectively form a directed acyclic graph ("DAG").

Universa network has access to only two parts of contracts: status and definition. The rest are never sent to the network. This point is crucial, because the attachments can be confidential. Thus, a full contract is exchanged exclusively between the parties involved in any convenient way (e-mail, messengers, cloud areas, etc.). The permanence of attachments (located somewhere in client storage) is guaranteed by links signed in the contract and approved by the network.

Licensing and legal aspects

Legal components of ICO procedure:

  • Legal form: Funds, non-profit structures.
  • Jurisdiction: Singapore, Zug (Switzerland).
  • Requires the passage of KYC procedure.

Headquarters of the project are located in Lithuania, Italy and Russia.

1."Architecture and Logic" evaluation: 4 points out of 10. The outlook is negative.

Mechanisms and principles of emission - 1 point out of 3 (the share of emissions to the project team is above the average, the token economy is poorly described; now the U token is being used, which is not mentioned in the project documentation).

Blockchain (architecture and consensus building mechanism) - 2 points out of 4 (incoherent confusing description of system architecture. The principle of decentralization is questionable. Each node is licensed and authorized by Universa Corporation and may be subject to its influence. Also, there is no description of licensing procedure, whether Universa can revoke issued licenses.)

Licensing and legal aspects - 1 point out of 3 (there is no available information on the legal support of the project and the perspective for relations with regulators.)

The outlook is negative. To implement the project, the high speed and scalability technology was chosen, the protection from the main types of attacks is provided. But the nodes selection is controversial, on the one hand it provides the system with additional protection against dishonest participants, and on the other hand, the threat of manipulation of nodes by the project team is increasing. In addition, it is unclear how the complex procedure of nods licensing will affect the amount of commission for transactions. The token economy is poorly described. During network operation, an additional U token for transactions payment has appeared, of which there is no information in the project documentation.

Functionality and software platform
Performance and scalability

The use of DAG technology positively affects the speed and scalability of the platform:

  • The transaction confirmation speed is about 2 seconds.
  • More than 20,000 transactions per second.
Built-in mechanisms and functions

Smart contracts

Universa smart contract is simply executable script stored in tree structures. Scenarios in Universa smart contracts are Turing-complete, which means that scripts can execute other scripts and contain programmable logic of significant complexity. The hierarchical structure of smart contracts creates a Smart Contract Chain - a set of smart contracts that link and affirm one another, like a set of related documents in the real world. But blockchain does not store the contracts themselves, only their current status, the contract body is stored in other objects.

Smart contracts can include ownership of a real-world object. Any files can be added inside the contract - directly or as a link with a confirmed signature (which prevents file changes) for large files. Universa client will check the compliance of the link, when executing the smart contract, and after its certification by the Notary Cloud puts a time stamp for it. The maximum contract size is 1 GB.

The time stamp is a feature of Universa contracts. When the user client sends a request for confirmation of the change in the status of contract to Universa node, the latter checks and certifies the time when this happened. Since the operation in Notarial Cloud takes less than a second, you can find out the exact time when the contract was confirmed or rejected by Universa. This allows to use Universa smart contracts for legal purposes.

Sometimes it’s needed to have a possibility to confirm the old status of smart contract; in case when it’s needed to specify the status of contract at a given time, a "marker" can be created. This is a special small smart contract that confirms and stores the old state of required contract for a period of 2 years.

During the launch, or shortly afterwards, Universa will provide a reference implementation of several common cases of using smart contracts on Universa platform. The reference implementations will be adaptive and accessible with open source code, which allows to directly copy them or use them as a basis for future developments. Samples of "tokens", "invoices", "escrow transactions" and "organizations" will be provided.

Derivative contracts

In Universa network, there is a notion of derivative contracts. As it was said above, in the network smart contracts have a hierarchical structure, which is a chain from the parent contract to the subsidiar.

There are two options for how chains can be formed.

Consider the option when network client A receives, for example, from a bank, a Coin-type contract (any contract that includes some decimal value, having the ability to split / merge and change the owner), or simply a "coin". In this case, the coin is the root contract. Let further client A make a gift to another client B and transfers him his coin. In this case, the "coin" of client A no longer exists, it is canceled. A new coin modification is created, the owner of which is the client B. These types of operations are used during transferring ownership: the object is cloned, a new revision is created (contract status), the owner changes and the old revision is discarded. That is, the parent contract is canceled.

On the other hand, derivative contracts can not cancel the parent, but create new ones that refer to it. For example, smart public offer contracts can create multiple derivative client contracts that reference a parent contract. A parent contract can contain detailed information about the fields and references of the subsidiar, when and by whom it was created.

Analysis of applicability to business cases

Scenarios for using Universa platform:

  • International payments in real time.
  • Multisig and Escrow out of the box.
  • Smart contracts for offline b2b contracts.
  • Support for offline transactions.
  • Source of liquidity for payments / smart contracts.
  • Very fast microtransactions for IoT.


Universa allows you to create chains of smart contracts to solve almost any business problems. They can be used both in intra-corporate processes, and for creating public applications. For example:

  • Smart key for a car connected to a specific place that creates a chain of car owner-car-contract. The owner can temporarily bind another key (car service mode, parking mode) or transfer all rights to another owner (in case of sale). If GPS system is installed in the car, also a key can be released, that works in a specific area (parking, car service). In this case, the phone or the smart key chain can act as a key.
  • Club card in the spa and fitness centers. A smart contract Universa can create a single key from a room or locker; pass to the SPA and gym; purchases in vending machines, parking access, etc. The key can be an RFC tag, as well as a smartphone with or without NFC. All resources can be time-bound or limited by an available credit.
  • Elements of smart house that interact with each other. Smart contract allows to determine the owner of a house and guests based on their ID, to manage roles and rights, and also to work without the Internet (subject to the installation of a special node) after transferring the rights.
  • Payment cards for parking lots and gas stations. A telephone with Internet access can work as a transponder. The client receives a request on his phone by Internet, when approaching the access point the phone sends a request for confirmation or checks the approximate coordinates, and then allows payment.
  • Tracking of goods in logistics transport. Smart RFID tags that use contracts with QR codes.
  • IoT (Internet of Things). A smart contract connects the purchased goods to the customer. Universa allows "smart" things to work together and provides a simple mechanism for managing the rights of different users without access to the Internet. It also provides a simple mechanism for transferring rights from one party to another in sales transactions.
User basic software

It is planned that the platform will consist of the following entities:

  1. The nodes that together make Universa Notary Cloud and the K-Chain registry.
  2. Clients —  for PC and mobile applications.
  3. Additional services, such as Universa crypto-cloud and third-party objects that will provide services via Universa

Universa nodes are peer hosts that store Universa network structure. Each node runs on a regular Unix server and contains a dynamic copy of the registry. When a client sends a smart contract to Universa, it is first checked by Universa client, which distributes it to known nodes.

Universa will provide the following development samples and products with minimal functionality:

  • open source Java libraries that will work both on PC interface and on Android platform;
  • client application for Windows, MacOS and Linux with basic functions of Universa;
  • Android mobile app;
  • Graphical User Interface (GUI) constructor, containing contract templates and typical actions. The graphical interface will make it possible to create smart contracts without having special technical skills.

Status for January 2018:

  • Blockchain works in beta mode: Web wallet can be found there as well.
  • Wallets for iOS and Android work in test mode.
  • Development of mobile and web client is in the process.

Current state (early August 2018):

  • Universa Mainnet has launched on April 12, 2018.
  • Web interface and web wallet are at:
  • Wallets for iOS and Android work in test mode.
  • Mobile clients are being developed.
  • Uniclient console client has started.

You can follow the news of the projects in the blog of Alexander Borodich on Medium:

You can follow the updates of the technical part on GitHub:

The result of the project's assembly and verification of its launchability can be found in the Appendix to this document.

Integration options

On the platform, it is planned to implement cross-blockchain payments with the help of UniPayments, a service for integrating Universa with other blockchains (Bitcoin, Ethereum), which allows to convert UTN tokens into external blockchain tokens. At the moment UniPayments can send and receive BTC, ETH, ERC20 tokens. Now there is an analysis of vulnerabilities for hacking and a variety of load tests are being performed. Deadlines and details of system work are not available yet. Only in one of the reports of the project CEO A. Borodich it is mentioned, that integration works with Bitcoin and Ethereum were carried out in February.

  1. "Functional and software platform" evaluation: 7 points out of 10. The outlook is negative.

Performance and scalability - 2 points out of 2.

Built-in mechanisms and functions - 3 points out of 3.

Product - 1 point out of 4 (most of the functionality is under development or testing).

Integration options - 1 point from 1.

The outlook is negative. The project has a slow pace of development, it is behind the plan in two quarters to create mobile applications and wallets. The main network has started, but there is no possibility to evaluate the activity of its use. It is necessary to monitor the pace and development, and completeness of the declared functionality.


For the state on July 31, 2018, UTNP token is traded only on two exchanges: Cobinhood, Livecoin. On February 22, 2018, the token had gone out on HitBTC exchange, but now it is no longer traded there. The reasons for delisting are not reported, but perhaps this was due to the low volume of trading. In February, a request for Binance was filed, in early May a vote was collected for listing on OKEx, in mid-July - on KuCoin, RAСIB recommended the HUOBI exchange the UTNP listing. But for now the token hasn’t appeared on any of these exchanges.

Trading volumes on exchanges:

Price and capitalization dynamics of the token

According to as of 01.08.2018, Universa capitalization is $19.2 million (274-277 place in the cryptocurrency general rating), and the price of token is $0.01.

In early February 2018, token began be traded on exchange at a price of 5 cents, since then it only falls in price. There were periods of slight growth in the rate, but it still did not reach its initial cost. Now we see the lowest rate of the token for all trading time.

  1. "Statistics" evaluation: 2 points out of 10. The outlook is negative.

Distribution - 1 point out of 4 (more than 90% of trades are listed on one exchange, it’s not traded on large exchanges, dynamics of listings on new exchanges is negative).

Price and capitalization dynamics of the token - 1 point out of 6 (there is a long drop in the exchange rate and capitalization decrease).

The outlook is negative. Since February, when the token has appeared on exchanges, the number of trading platforms not only did not increase, but it also decreased from 3 to 2. There is a long drop in the token rate, a slight increase was observed in mid-April after the announcement of the launch of the main network, but even then the token did not reach its initial cost.

Due Diligence
RoadMap and WhitePaper

Website and documentation are in three languages: Russian, English and Korean.

The Road Map is scheduled for the second quarter of 2018 inclusive:

  1. Q3 / 2017
    • Universa blockchain first release.
    • Mac / Android clients / wallets.
    • UTN tokens via ICO.
  2. Q4 / 2017
    • API for applications and blockchains.
    • Universa exchanger for tokens.
    • Universa Smart Token first release.
    • Samples of Universa Smart Contracts.
  3. Q1 / 2018
    • Universa Liqudity Ocean.
    • Universa Trust & Reputation Score.
    • Blockchain Academy.
  4. Q2 / 2018
    • World Blockchain Association.
    • Universa Bank and Cards.
    • Universa Appstore.
    • Cryptofund for DAO / ICO @ Universa.

According to the road map, now it’s the third stage of the project, but in fact the first stage commitments have not been fulfilled yet: mobile clients and wallets.

This is what Alexander Borodich writes about it in his blog on January 3, 2018: "We are accused that we moved all TokenSale and plans in August for 6 weeks from the middle of September to the end of October and did not change it in the WP and on the website. It seems to me that it is right that you can see the original document and how far behind we are from our own plans. In two or three weeks we will publish a new Road Map, refined and updated, but for now we are going somewhere ahead of schedule, somewhere with a backlog of schedule." However, at the beginning of August 2018 RM is still not updated.

Some points also raise questions:

  • Blockchain Academy and World Blockchain Association —  it is unclear why another association is needed and what it has to do with the blockchain.
  • Universa Bank and Cards. In the current conditions of legislative uncertainty regarding cryptocurrencies, the creation of a legal cryptobank is practically impossible.

WhitePaper: (English), (Russian).

The project positions itself as fundamentally new and innovative, but at the same time White Paper does not describe the technical side of the project and what exactly is innovativeness of it. The very principle of the platform is described in a very confusing, incomprehensible and contradictory way. According to description and the main characteristics, the project uses DAG technology (directed acyclic graph), but at the same time White Paper describes the formation of blocks and blockchain. Although, in fact, blockchain and DAG are two different ways of recording transactions.

There is a difference in the fact for which particular mobile platforms applications will be developed: both iOS and Android are listed in one place; and in the other —  only Android.

  1. "Analysis of Road Map and White Paper" evaluation: 4 points out of 10. The outlook is negative.

White Paper - 2 points out of 5 (the technical side is not well described, the principle of the system operation is described in confusing and contradictory way, confusion in terminology).

Road Map - 2 points out of 5 (small planning horizon, backlog of plans, which is not declared in RM at all).

The outlook is negative. In the six months since the first analysis of the project, no changes have been made to the project documentation (WP is the same version dated September 8, 2017), so its quality has not improved. Despite the promises of the representatives of the project, a new version of RM has not yet appeared.

The project team and affiliated persons

Managers of the project:

Alexander Borodich —  CEO of the project. Business angel, serial entrepreneur, founder of Future Labs and MyWishBoard, MyDreamBoard, SuperFolder projects, founder of Was engaged in on-line marketing, served as marketing director at Acronis and Finalist of MobileBeat 2012 (San Francisco). Has a US patent in assessing the effectiveness of information spread in social networks.

Sergey Chernov —  СTO of the project, ex СTO in the Cybiko project, has 25 years of experience in software development and architecture, 17 years of experience in cryptography, ex CTO in the Glomper project.

Alexander Dovnar —  Art director of the project, 20 years of experience in digital and polygraphic design, over 10 years of experience as art director, former art director at Mail.Ru Group.

Maxim Postnikov —  Evangelist, 18 years of IT experience, former head of Social Network in Group.

The team also includes 12 programmers / lead developers, 9 developers of mobile applications, 8 quality managers, 5 designers, UI / UX experts, 3 project managers, 25+ CTO with many years of experience with security systems.


John McAfee —  pioneer of cybersecurity and software, in 1989 has opened McAfee Associates - the first company that developed antivirus software.

Yale ReiSoleil —  private equity fund manager and specialist in trading (algorithmic trading), co-manager of Sichuan Hongjian Medical Foundation with a volume of 20 million yen and of international venture fund for high technologies. Starting in 2013, ReiSoleil has developed several systems for algorithmic trading. In July 2017, along with John McAfee and Stanley Zhu has become one of the founders of ReiSoleil McAfee Zhu Ventures.

Dmitry Finkelstein is a co-founder of four companies in the field of IT and FinTech. Master in Applied Mathematics, EMBA, CQF. A partner at Bankex and Terreus Capital.

Samson Lee is the co-founder of Ethereum Sound China and South Asia communities, the chief adviser on crypto economy of Gibraltar Stock Exchange and the president of Next-TV.

David Drake —  Chairman of the Board of Directors of LDJ Capital and The Soho Loft Media Group; participant of four and co-founder of two networks of business angels.

The team is numerous and experienced in IT and FinTech, however, at first glance, it has little experience in blockchain technologies and international work experience.

The presence among the advisers of such a celebrity as John McAfee, gives solidity to the project. According to representatives of the project team, McAfee is going to use Universa platform to implement his own blockchain project —  McAfee Coin, with which he hopes to "change the venture capital market."

Investors and partners

The community of ApexFree Platform Services will invest $7 million in the project in exchange for a share of the company. As a result of the deal, ApexFree Platform Services integrates with Universa solution, this will allow companies to launch a SaaS solution for fast and low-cost microtransactions based on blockchain and smart contract technologies. ApexFree Platform Services is a platform that works in the field of automation and robotization of information flow management, payments and documents. Now the company plans to expand capabilities and sphere of application, plans to introduce new services and software solutions, Universa will be used as a facility for registering transactions and associated metadata.

EY Company (Erns & Young) has announced a strategic partnership with Universa Blockchain Platform. The cooperation of the companies will be carried out in the field of introduction and promotion of products based on blockchain technology aimed at solving problems of the real sector of economy and public administration.

IT-holding company "Lanit" will launch a separate line for the development of projects in the field of blockchain —  Digital Transformation Group. And the first partner should be Universa.

In the end of March 2018, Universa became a technological partner of RACIB. Universa will be used for assets tokenization and as a digital platform for creating the Cripto-Park by RACIB in Moscow region Stupino.

A cooperation agreement was signed with Shanghai University of Business. Details of this cooperation are not being covered.

A partnership agreement has also been signed with Hong Kong Blockchain Society to create a technology exchange innovative platform, to train entrepreneurs and launch joint projects in Hong Kong and the economic zone of Shanghai.

  1. "Analysis of the project team and affiliated persons" evaluation: 9 points out of 10. The outlook is neutral.

The number of the team - 2 points out of 2.

Team structure - 3 points out of 3.

Team competencies - 2 points out of 3 (little experience in the field of blockchain technologies and international work experience).

Affiliated persons - 2 points out of 2.

The outlook is neutral. The team is numerous, has a good structure. However, according to official data, neither the number nor the structure has changed in the past six months. Although, judging by the lag in development of 2 quarters, the development team may need to be strengthened. In case of successful cooperation with ApexFree Platform Services, there are premises for the emergence of new investors and partners. Practical results of already concluded partnerships are not yet available, all only in theory.

Nearest competitors

Universa positions itself as a competitor of Bitcoin and Ethereum, comparing its future speed and scalability with them. However, there are a lot of faster blockchains besides Universa, and Bitcoin and Ethereum both as were pioneers, so they will remain.

Talking about the state register, the creation of which is in the plans of Universa, Waves Platform already has it.

In terms of technical implementation of the platform, its closest competitors are IOTA and ByteBall.

In fact, any blockchain with smart contracts is a direct competitor to Universa.

  1. "Competitors" evaluation: 2 points out of 10. The outlook is negative.

Direct competitors - 1 point out of 4 (there are already working blockchains using similar technology, more famous and authoritative)

Industry competitors - 1 point out of 4 (all scenarios described in the White Paper can be implemented on already existing blockchains)

Citation, social networks

The project is little known on the world market. In Russia, there has been an increase in attention to the project in recent months amid accusations of scam, and especially after the founder of the project Alexander Borodich filed a claim for protection of business reputation to ex-manager of ICO Universa Arthur Lipatov. In March 2018, on his Facebook account Lipatov has published a post (which is now deleted), in which he blamed the Universa project for lack of progress in developing its own blockchain, as well as violating the agreements on remuneration for his work as the community manager. In more detail - in Artur Lipatov interview for

Dynamics of popularity of "universa" request according to Google.Trends:

As seen, the peak of popularity occurs at the beginning of December, when after the ICO ending it was announced that the project collected almost $29 million.

CEO of the project Alexander Borodich actively promotes the project, attending various conferences, forums, meetups and negotiating around the world. You can follow his active movement by the regular reports on his blog on Medium.

The popularity of the project in social networks (as of 03.08.2018):

  • Facebook —  39,387 subscribers;
  • Twitter —  11,334 readers;
  • Telegram —  5811 participants;
  • Reddit —  350 subscribers.

Twitter is now one of the most popular social networks in the world. Judging by the rest of blockchain projects (especially foreign ones), this social network usually has subscribers at least 2 times more than all the others. Here most of all subscribers are on Facebook, most likely it is because of its greater popularity in Russia. Very few subscribers has Reddit.

It is worth mentioning separately the lack of professionalism of the work of community managers in Telegram. The level of moderation and interaction with people is very low. On specific questions related to technical aspects, details of consensus building mechanism, etc., practically no answers were received: they were ignored. It became possible to get a link to the documents that describe consensus building mechanism, only after a personal appeal on Telegram to the CEO of the project A. Borodich.


As of 03.08.2018, 36 nodes and more than 790 thousand wallets are registered in Universa network. There is no way to assess the activity of network. On a resource that is positioned as an explorer, you can only view the status of one particular contract by downloading it or by specifying an ID.

Projects on Universa

Smart Gold creates SGT blockchain asset, which is backed by gold in natural expression and will be placed on Universa platform. Since, at the time of the launch of ICO, Universa network was not launched, the SGT founders decided to accept investments with ERC-20 standard altcoins, with the possibility of further transferring of SGT tokens into Universa smart contract.

As a platform of Cryptopark (RACIB), a prototype application is being developed based on Universa blockchain platform.

Alexander Borodich has told to Advance.Fund that Universa blockchain is already being actively used: "On Universa blockchain, Alfa Bank (interbank payments), Novotrans (the digital history of wagons - provenance) and the government of Malaysia (smart money that can not be spent on alcohol ) deploy their systems".

The latest news about Alfa Bank dates the middle of March 2018, when the report mentions a creation of private blockchain and the start of programming of smart contracts for MVP. Denis Dodon, director of the Center for Innovation Research and Development of Alfa-Bank, said in his interview that the decision to use Universa will be made after testing the MVP. And today there is no information whether Alfa Bank has started using Universa in the working mode.

There is also no confirmation of actual use by Novotrans.

Universa is going to develop technical solutions for transferring information on flights to the blockchain for Blockchain.Aero —  a project that deals with development of urban air taxi infrastructure.

Persons in the project

CEO of the project Alexander Borodich is known in Russia as a serial entrepreneur and venture investor, former marketing director of Group.

  1. "Fame of the project" evaluation: 3 points out of 10. The outlook is neutral.

Citation, social networks - 1 point out of 3 (the project is not very well known on the world market, citation in recent months is associated with negative statements in its address).

Usability / distribution - 1 point out of 2 (the main network has launched, but the activity of its use can not be estimated).

Projects based on technology - 0 points out of 3 (there are many plans and cooperation agreements, but there is no actual confirmation of the use of the network).

Famous persons in the team - 1 point from 2 (CEO of the project is known in Russia).

The outlook is neutral. There is no available information on the use of the network and the actual implementation of projects based on Universa. Interest for the project is growing in recent months, mainly because of accusations of scam.

Trust index

In open discussions of the blockchain community, there is often a position that Universa is a scam. On the one hand, the activity of haters always indicates the popularity of the project, on the other —  critics make very specific accusations, the main of which is the fact that there is no blockchain, as such. The negative tone is also supported by a public conflict with former employee of Universa Artur Lipatov (see subsection "Citation, social networks"). Our technical experts have checked the code posted on GitHub for compliance with the functionality stated in WP.

As a result of the check, it was found out that the system is a distributed database for storing transactions and the results of making transactions. The system stores the inputs of contract functions - user requests. For example, the behavior of the "total sum" calculation contract can be described as follows: when a 2 + 2 request is received (input data for the contract), the last result of the contract execution is written in DB = 4, hashing it with the input data. The next request to the contract function will be, for example, with +5 data, and in the database it will be written = 9, and the record = 4 will be outdated and can be deleted from the database with time. Requests / transactions from contract users are stored with a hash - protection from changing transactions. And only the last results of the functions (contracts) are stored. Keeping requests / contracts is not a blockchain, it is just a database with integrity control. Results individually are not blockchain as well, but they are related to requests for the execution of the contract. So we get an implicit blockchain with the possibility of dropping the history, while each contract has its own history branch.

Also the exchange of results between nodes is implemented. A lot of code serving the network function of the system looks like a self-written IRC channel, the nodes look for each other and transmit messages.

And all of the above is stated in the WP.

The result of the project's assembly and verification of its launchability can be found in the Appendix to this document.

As for the disadvantages:

  • From the published code it is not clear how the implementation of the ICO on the platform will be realized. Tokens declared for sale are not used in the system itself, it is possible to perform the network operation without them (without coins).
  • The team is far behind in developing from its own plans. There are no visible actions to eliminate the backlog: the pace of development is not increasing, new specialists are not being involved, plans are not being revised.

Thus, we can say that Universa is not a blockchain. And, judging by the contents of the WP, it was not conceived as a blockchain. So there is a complaint to the team about a dubious marketing strategy: the use of trend technology and its terminology to refer to entities that are essentially unrelated to this technology, or are very mediated.

This strategy has already been used by this team before: in 2014 it was announced the release of WishCoin —  "Russian competitor of Bitcoin". However, WishCoin was not a cryptocurrency in fact, but was something like an electronic bill or an analogue of a game currency. The project has not been realized and was closed in the same year. This story also does not benefit the reputation of the current project.

Another factor that increases the risk of the project's scam is the lack of the ability to verify how and by whom the main network is being used and whether it is used at all: there are no statistics on the operation of network, there is no working explorer, there is no news that one or the other project, that previously  stated its desire to use Universa in its work, does in fact already work on it. CEO A. Borodich responds to the questions about the way the platform works using evasive language, for example, "deploy their systems." This can be interpreted as a fact of using the system, and as that the work is underway, but not yet completed.

  1. "Trust Index" evaluation: 4 points out of 10. Probability of scam: above average.

The probability of scam is above average. Low speed of development and backlog of plans. Marketing manipulation with terminology. The already existing team has one scam project in the past. There is no available information on the use of the network and the actual implementation of projects based on Universa.


RATING. "Universa" evaluation: 35 points out of 80 - 43.75%. The outlook is neutral.

The outlook is neutral. The project can take its place in the developing crypto market, but it can not compete with large players yet. The main focus in the marketing campaign was made on the high speed of transactions, the performance indicators are really impressive, but the consensus building mechanism is achieved by authorized nodes that must obtain the appropriate license, the scheme of obtaining which, by the way, is incomprehensible. Thus, the principle of operation of the system is strongly shifted to the centralized side. The technical details of the work of blockchain in the project documentation are unclear, which makes it impossible to build a full-scale correlation between the declared loud promises and the technical side of the issue. The analysis of the code showed that the platform is a distributed database, the functions specified in the documentation are present in the code, but it is impossible to check their work capacity and use of the network.

The team qualify high speed compared to Bitcoin and Ethereum as their main competitive advantage. However, in fact, almost all new blockchains are already faster than these two veterans that use the PoW consensus building mechanism in their work, which is the slowest. It would be more honest to compare with IOTA system, which uses the same mechanism. But even this comparison can not be called correct, because the result of the code audit on GitHub showed that Universa network is currently a distributed database, rather than a blockchain. In the test for "launchability" (see Appendix), there were no commands detected that could give out, for example, a block hash, what actually blockchain (or a DAG project) functions on. There is a history of the execution of contracts, the connection between the blocks goes through timestamps, for example, but blockchain structure is not visible.

Another advantage that the team mentions is "smarter smart contracts," but it's not clear what criteria are used to assess the "smartness" of contracts and what is the advantage of Universa smart contracts over others. All the scripts described in White Paper can be implemented on already existing blockchains.

To speed up the work in Universa, the idea of ​​creating a blockchain is being used, that does not store a complete transaction history, all the data is stored on the client side. But for this, the sender and the recipient must have the appropriate clients. Developing clients for mobile applications will require a lot of resources and there may be problems with iPhone because of Apple's security policy.

There is also a question about ensuring decentralization principle, because all nodes belong to Universa partners. Each node is licensed and authorized by Universa Corporation and may be subject to its influence. The documentation does not disclose questions about the basis on which partners will be selected and how licensing will be carried out.


В данном приложении приведены результаты сборки проекта по инструкции из GitHub и испытание его на "запускаемость".

После небольших корректировок файлов gradle для сборки, проект собирается без предупреждений и ошибок. Собирается быстро каждая часть 6..15 секунд, кода немного. Для сравнения, Ethereum собирается около 20 минут.

Пример вывода сборки клиента сети на openJDK, модули собираются не только вариантом от оракла как заявлено в документации, это нормально, особых причин не компилироваться  рабочему коду нет.

egorka@hm:~/universa$ gradle :uniclient:fatJar test config











:common_tools:compileJava UP-TO-DATE

:common_tools:processResources UP-TO-DATE

:common_tools:classes UP-TO-DATE

:common_tools:jar UP-TO-DATE

:crypto:compileJava UP-TO-DATE

:crypto:processResources UP-TO-DATE

:crypto:classes UP-TO-DATE

:crypto:jar UP-TO-DATE

:universa_core:compileJava UP-TO-DATE

:universa_core:processResources UP-TO-DATE

:universa_core:classes UP-TO-DATE

:universa_core:jar UP-TO-DATE


Note: /home/uniclient/src/main/java/com/icodici/universa/client/ uses unchecked or unsafe operations.

Note: Recompile with -Xlint:unchecked for details.





Total time: 14.547 secs

В документации есть список уже сделанных функций в каждом модуле системы с датами модификации, при  просмотре исходного кода модулей кода указанные пункты обнаруживаются, и в них некоторый код/текст, а не просто заглушки для отладочного вывода.

ContractsService API

3.4.8 (08.05.2018)    Added methods for payment parcel and slot contract creation

3.2.4b2 (27.03.2018) Added possibility for creation simple contract's templates such as token, share and notary

3.0.1 (27.02.2018)    Collected and implemented methods for provide base contract's operations: revoke, split, join, swap, create parcel, create TU.

Node interface

3.2.4b2 (27.03.2018)

Added support for references.

Added support for addresses and anonymous ids.

Added sanitation procedure while node is starting.

Added statistic collection for the Node.

Fixed memory leaks and optimisation made.

Added console command to enable verbose mode, restart udp socket and gentle shutdown of the Node.

3.1.0 (05.03.2018)

Allowed payment with test transaction units.

3.0.1 (27.02.2018)

Release of paid contracts.

Uniclient Command-Line tool (beta)

New feature: append signature to partially signed contracts without breaking existing signatures. Bulk operations for import, export, register and check.

Probe files, not only ids.

3.4.8 (27.04.2018)

Added --resync command that synchronizes contract status between nodes

Added --node option that specifies number of node to connect to

Added --skey option that specifies session private key file

3.2.4b2 (27.03.2018)

Added --address command that generates address from key. Has option -short.

Added --address-match command that check matching address with key from file. Path to key define in parameter -keyfile.

Added --folder-match command that associates the entered address with the key file in the specified directory. Address define in parameter -addr.

3.1.0 (05.03.2018)

Added --tutest key for --register command with --tu key to use test transaction units as payment.

Added --anonymize and --role keys to making anonymous roles in the contract.

3.0.1 (27.02.2018)

Added --tu and --amount keys for --register command to avoid paid processing of contracts.

2.2.4 (29.12.2017)

Added --cost as standalone key and as key for use with --register.

2.2.3 (16.11.2017)

Added --wait and --register keys.

2.2.0 (07.11.2017)

Added --revoke key.

Added --pack and --unpack keys.

2.1.5 (05.11.2017)

Better --network handling.

2.1.4 (03.11.2017)

Better command line options logic.

Bulk (transactions) operation support.

2.1.3 (01.11.2017)

First published beta. Contains all the basic functionality to work with Universa network.

Запуск ноды universa

Для запуска ноды не требуется заполнять никаких конфигурационных файлов.

У исполняемого файла ноды нет никаких конфигурационных ключей, например, чтобы запустить ноду в тестовом режиме или выдать тестовые монеты. Некоторое управление нодой есть через интерфейс клиента сети (не точно).

egorka@hm:~/universa$ java -jar universa_core/build/output/uninode.jar


Neither config no database option passed, leaving

Universa node server v3.7.5

Далее сервер находится в режиме ожидания, самих файлов БД не видно (не было обнаружено) на диске.

Запуск клиента universa

Почитаем инструкцию на клиента и по запускаем команды  из примера работы с клиентом. Клиент работает с сетью предположительно  без использования ноды.  

Проверка состояния сети: обнаружено 36 точек, две ноды подключены с ошибками.

egorka@hm:~/universa$ java -jar uniclient/build/libs/uniclient.jar --network

Network version: 3.7.4

retry #1 on connection failure:

retry #1 on connection failure:

Universa network is active, 36 node(s) are reachable


Создание ключа

egorka@hm:~/universa$ java -jar uniclient/build/libs/uniclient.jar -g  sega

New key pair ready

На диске создаются  два файла с некоторым бинарным содержимым размером 266 байт  



Операция с кошельком  непонятна, файл кошелька не появляется (не обнаружен в каталогах проекта).

egorka@hm:~/universa$ java -jar uniclient/build/libs/uniclient.jar -wallet

Universa client tool, v. 3.7.5

error while parsing command line. Use uniclient --help

Попробуем команды для работы с контрактами из мануала на клиенте, оценим как работает вывод.

Создание контракта  

egorka@hm:~/universa$ java -jar uniclient/build/libs/uniclient.jar -с templateq.yaml

Universa client tool, v. 3.7.5

error while parsing command line. Use uniclient --help

Файла контракта нет - соответственно, никаких результатов.

Первый попавшийся файл yml не подходит.

egorka@hm:~/universa$ java -jar uniclient/build/libs/uniclient.jar --create appveyor.yml

Error: java.lang.NumberFormatException: null

Попробуем тестовый файл из папки проекта, их там большое количество.

egorka@hm:~/universa$ java -jar uniclient/build/libs/uniclient.jar --create  /home/egorka/universa/uniclient/src/test_files/coin.yml

Contract is saved to: /home/egorka/universa/uniclient/src/test_files/coin.unicon

Sealed contract size: 2398

** ERROR: NOT_SIGNED: missing creator signature(s)


The capsule is not sealed properly:

** ERROR: NOT_SIGNED: missing creator signature(s)


Saldo is not zero: -1000000

** ERROR: NOT_SIGNED: missing creator signature(s)


** ERROR: NOT_SIGNED: missing creator signature(s)


Что-то произошло, невыполнение отправки контракта в систему предположительно по причине отсутствия оплаты комиссии абонентом сети.

Проверка наличия контракта в системе.

egorka@hm:~/universa$ java -jar uniclient/build/libs/uniclient.jar --check  /home/egorka/universa/uniclient/src/test_files/coin.unicon

file /home/egorka/universa/uniclient/src/test_files/coin.unicon is a single contract

Saldo is not zero: -1000000

** ERROR: NOT_SIGNED: missing creator signature(s)


Ещё одна команда:

egorka@hm:~/universa$ java -jar uniclient/build/libs/uniclient.jar --export  /home/egorka/universa/uniclient/src/test_files/coin.unicon

export format: json

/home/egorka/universa/uniclient/src/test_files/coin.json export as json ok

Что делают команды пока не разбираемся, тестируем просто то, что программа “живая” и что-то делает:

egorka@hm:~/universa$ java -jar uniclient/build/libs/uniclient.jar --export  /home/egorka/universa/uniclient/src/test_files/coin.unicon --extract-key owner

owner export public keys ok

Попытка создать контракт с подписью ранее созданной парой ключей:

egorka@hm:~/universa$ java -jar uniclient/build/libs/uniclient.jar --create  /home/egorka/universa/uniclient/src/test_files/coin.yml -k sega.private.unikey

Contract is sealed with 1 key(s)

Contract is saved to: /home/egorka/universa/uniclient/src/test_files/coin_1.unicon

Sealed contract size: 3404

** ERROR: NOT_SIGNED: missing creator signature(s)


The capsule is not sealed properly:

** ERROR: NOT_SIGNED: missing creator signature(s)


Saldo is not zero: -1000000

** ERROR: NOT_SIGNED: missing creator signature(s)


** ERROR: NOT_SIGNED: missing creator signature(s)


Попробуем узнать стоимость отправки  контракта в сеть:

egorka@hm:~/universa$ java -jar uniclient/build/libs/uniclient.jar --cost  /home/egorka/universa/uniclient/src/test_files/coin.unicon

Calculating cost of /home/egorka/universa/uniclient/src/test_files/coin.unicon, type is BINARY...

Contract processing cost is 1 TU

Первое упоминание про внутренние токены, о том, как их получить (сгенерировать для тестов) в документации информации нет.

Попробуем создать адрес в сети со своим приватным ключом:

egorka@hm:~/universa$ java -jar uniclient/build/libs/uniclient.jar --address sega.private.unikey

Generate long address from key: sega.private.unikey

Address: JHw5qoXZYfKFqxppsGbuXmmr34tLC4oCZ7ifVzbAA6YoTcuugWGi5iQipsKafAfRCQbDR4gH

Получилось, но всё, что можно сделать с этим адресом - передать его в какой либо контракт или посмотреть есть ли похожий адрес в сети.  Есть ещё команды --tutest --tu -u для работы с токенами, но их вывод ничего существенного не показывает так как токенов нет.

Выполнена попытка зарегистрировать контракт используя тестовые токены для оплаты комиссии, но требуется контракт tu.unicoin, обрабатывающий эти самые токены, а где его брать неизвестно.

egorka@hm:~/universa$ java -jar uniclient/build/libs/uniclient.jar --register  /home/egorka/universa/uniclient/src/test_files/coin.unicon --tu tu.unicoin --tutest

** ERROR: NOT_FOUND: tu.unicoin: Path tu.unicoin does not exist

Error: java.lang.NullPointerException


Show usage: uniclient --help


Описание на основе исходных кодов и никак не касается экономической сути проекта и полезности продукта.

  1. Проект собирается без ошибок и предупреждений (+).
  2. Указанные  в документации функции в коде присутствуют (+).
  3. В проекте есть модули для работы с криптографией, они реально используются в коде для хеширования обработки информации.
  4. Есть документация для запуска, сборки и использования модулей системы.
  5. Запуск своей ноды возможен, но на каких правах она будет участвовать в сети  компании Universa, нужно уточнять.
  6. Некоторые команды клиента сети  требуют для своего исполнения токенов  для оплаты комиссии. Получение или генерация тестовых монет в документации никак не описана, хотя команды для работы с ними есть.
  7. Как написать контракт тоже нет инструкции, кроме тестовых контрактов никакой информации. В приведенных  файлах один и тот-же код похожий на заголовок но никак не код контракта. Реализована ли работа контракта на ноде пока сказать невозможно.

Общие мнение:  проект-заготовка. Это не минимально рабочий проект,  выдать его даже для альфа-тестирования сторонним разработчикам не получится. Как минимум нужно дописать тестовую генерацию токенов,  и отправку токенов между пользователями средствами сети без использования контрактов.

Cписок всех команд:

java -jar uniclient/build/libs/uniclient.jar --wallet /home/egorka/uinversa

Universa client tool, v. 3.7.5

Option Description
-?, -h, --help Show help.
--add-referenced <file.unicon> Use with --pack-with command. Option add referenced item to transaction pack.
--add-revoke <file.unicon> Use with --pack-with command. Option add revoke item for packing contract.
--add-sibling <sibling.unicon> Use with --pack-with command. Option add sibling item for packing contract.
--addr <address> Address for finding key in folder.
--address <file> Generate address from key. Path to key define in parameter -address. For generate short address use parameter -short.
--address-match <file> Matching address with key from file. Address define in parameter -address- match.Path to key define in parameter -keyfile.
--amount <Integer: tu amount> Use with --register, --create-parcel and -tu. Command is set amount of transaction units will be pay for contract's register. (default: 1)
--amount-storage <Integer: tu amount- storage> Use with --register, --create-parcel and -tu. Command is set amount-storage of storage units will be pay for contract's register. (default: 0)
--anonymize [file]
Key erase public key from given contract for role given with -role key and replace it with anonymous id for that public key. If -role key is missed will anonymize all roles. After anonymizing contract will be saved as (file_name)_anonymized. unicon. If you want to save with custom name use -name keys.
--as <format>
Use with -e, --export command. Specify format for export contract. Possible values are 'json', 'xml' or 'yaml'.
with --extract-key keys to the text base64 format
-c, --create [file.yml]
Create smart contract from dsl template.
--ch, --check [file/path]
Check contract for validness. Use -r key to check all contracts in the path recursively.
--cost [file]
Print cost of operations for contracts with given files of contracts. Can be used as key with -register command.
--create-parcel [contract.unicon]
prepare parcel for registering given contract. use with either --wallet or --tu with --keys to specify payment options. If none are specified default wallet will be used. If no default wallet exist command fails. Amount to pay is specified with --amount
-d, --download <url>
Download contract from the specified url.
-e, --export [file]
Export specified contract. Default export format is JSON. Use '-as' option with values 'json', 'xml' or 'yaml' for export as specified format.
--extract-key <role>
Use with -e, --export command. Extracts any public key(s) from specified role into external file.
-f, --find [path]
Search all contracts in the specified path including subpaths. Use -r key to check all contracts in the path recursively.
--field-name <field_name>
Use with split-off to specify the field name to split.  (default: amount)
Print fingerprints of keys specified with -k.
--folder-match <file>
Associates the entered address with the key file in the specified directory. Path to directory define in parameter -folder-match. Address define in parameter -addr.
-g, --generate <name_prefix> Generate new key pair and store in a files starting with a given prefix.
--get <field_name>
Use with -e, --export command. Extracts any field of the contract into external file.
-i, --import [file]
Import contract from specified xml, json or yaml file.
--id <packed contract>
extract ID from a packed contract
-j, --json
Return result in json format.
-k, --keys <key_file>
List of comma-separated private key files touse to sign contract with, if appropriated.
--k-contract, --keys-contract <key_file>
Use with -register by paying parcel. List of comma-separated private key files touse to sign contract in paying parcel, if appropriated.
--keyfile <file>
Path to key for matching with address.
Check network status.
Do not use session cache
Used for tests. Uniclient d
--node <Integer>
used with to specify node number to connect to
-o, --output <filename>
Use with -e, --export or -i, --import commands. Specify name of destination file.
--owners <address>
Use with split-off to specify new owners of the parts.
--pack-with [file.unicon]
Pack contract with counterparts (new, revoking). Use -add-sibling option to add sibling and -add-revoke to add revoke item.
--parts <amount>
Use with split-off to specify the ammount to split of the main contract.
Use with -as json option. Make json string pretty.
--probe [base64_id]
query the state of the document in the Universa network
--probe-file <filename>
query the state of the document in the Universa network
--put-into-wallet [/path/to/wallet]
Adds specified U/UTN contracts and keys to UUTN wallet (creates one if not exists). Use with non-optional arguments passing U and UTN contracts and --keys to specify keys required to split UTNs and decrement Us. Argument to --put-into-wallet is optional and specifies path to create wallet at. If no path specifed default will be taken (~/. universa) Wallet can then be used with --register and --create-parcel. It will also try to top up when needed Us if there are any UTN contract in the wallet
Use with --ch, --check or -f, --find commands. Specify to check contracts in the path and do it recursively.
--register [contract.unicon]
register a specified contract, must be a sealed binary file. Use with either --wallet or --tu with --keys to specify payment options. If none are specified default wallet will be used. If no default wallet exist command fails. Amount to pay is specified with --amount
--register-parcel [parcel.uniparcel]
register a specified parcel
--resync [base64_id]
start resync of the document in the Universa network
--revision-of <parent.unicon>
Use with --import command. Option adds parent to revokes.
--revoke [file.unicon]
Revoke specified contract and create a revocation transactional contract. Use -k option to specify private key for revoke contract, key should be same as key you signed contract for revoke with. You cannot revoke contract without pointing private key.
--role [role_name]
Use with -anonymize. Set the role name for anonymizing.
-s <Integer>
With -g, specify key strength. (default: 2048)
--set <field_name>
Use with -e, --export command. Specify field of the contract for update. Use -value option to specify value for the field
--set-log-levels <level>
sets log levels of the node,network and udp adapter
Generate short addres.
--sign <filename>
add signatures to contract. Use with -- keys to specify keys to sign with
--skey <file>
used with to specify session private key file
--split-off <file.unicon>
Joins specified contract with ones passed as non-optional argumentsand splits parts  off the result and transfers ownership of these parts to specified addresses. Use with -- parts and --owners to specify the amounts and new owners
--term-width <Integer>
(default: 80)
--tu <tu.unicon>
Use with --register and --create-parcel. Point to file with your transaction units. Use it to pay for contract's register.
Use with --register, --create-parcel and -tu. Key is point to use test transaction units.
--u-for-utn <utn.unicon>
buy U for UTN. Use with --keys to specify keys required to split UTNs and --amount to specify ammount of U to buy
Get how many U are given for 1 UTN at this time.
--unpack [file.unicon]
Extracts revoking and new items from contracts and save them.
-v, --verbose
Provide more detailed information.
--value <field_value>
Use with -e, --export command and after -set argument. Update specified with -set argument field of the contract.
--wait [Integer: milliseconds]
with --register,  wait for network consensus up to specified number of consensus up to specified number of milliseconds. (default: 5000)
--wallet </path/to/wallet>

specify wallet to pay with. Use with --register or --create-parcel.

Online docs:


Official website:







Topic on in Russian:

Changes in edition No. 2
  1. The subsection "Licensing and legal aspects" has been added in the "Architecture" section.
  2. The subsection "Mechanisms and principles of emission" has been supplemented.
  3. In accordance with the changes described in paragraph 2, the rating of "Mechanisms and principles of emission" section has been reduced from 5 points to 4, and the forecast has been changed from neutral to negative.
  4. The "Product" section has been changed into "User basic software" section.
  5. "Integration options" section has been added.
  6. "Statistics" section and its evaluation has been added.
  7. "Integration options" subsection has been added, in which a part of the subsection "Built-in mechanisms and functions", describing cross-blocking payments, has been transferred.
  8. The outlook under "Functionality and software platform" section has been changed from "neutral" to "negative", commentary on the evaluation of this section has been added.
  9. The outlook for "Analysis of Road Map and White Paper" subsection has been changed from "neutral" to "negative", and a new comment on the evaluation of this section was written.
  10. Subsection "Analysis of the project team and affiliated persons" has been supplemented.
  11. The outlook for "Analysis of the project team and affiliated persons" section was changed from "positive" to "neutral", and a commentary on the evaluation of this section has been supplemented.
  12. The rating under "Nearest competitors" has been reduced from 4 points to 2.
  13. "Fame" section and its evaluation has been added.
  14. "Probability of the scam" and its evaluation has been added.
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